The design and construction of road structures, like no other, depends on the landscape, climatic conditions and hydrogeological features of the area. When creating a highway project, it is necessary to take into account not only transport loads, but also the impact of many natural and climatic factors.
Before starting the design of the highway, a complex of engineering surveys is carried out, during which it is necessary to obtain reliable and complete information about geology, hydrology, relief, climate, ecology and other factors affecting the creation of the project and the construction of the road.
In the process of engineering surveys, the natural and man-made conditions of the area where the road is planned are investigated. One of the important conditions that require careful study are the climatic conditions of the region and the features of the soil.
During operation, many climatic factors affect the road, so design engineers need to find engineering solutions that would ensure the necessary technical and operational qualities of the structures. Experts are investigating the weather regime characteristic of the region, namely:
Based on the surveys, a road-climatic zone is determined with characteristic meteorological features, indicators of soil freezing and groundwater level, which can affect the design, construction and operation of the highway.
Weather and climatic factors influence the choice of the type and thickness of the pavement, the timing and methods of road works, the duration of road operation. In areas with high air temperature and a large amount of precipitation, it is necessary to use travel clothing with high water resistance and heat resistance. In regions with predominantly low temperatures, it is necessary to use road clothes with high frost resistance and resistance to soil heaving.
Further, soil studies are carried out with the determination of physical and mechanical properties: density, humidity, strength, frost resistance, etc. The features of the soil determine the type and size of the foundation of the roadbed, on which the road clothes are directly laid. The calculation of the bearing capacity of the soil depends on the depth of the groundwater. With a small depth of occurrence, additional measures will be required to stabilize and strengthen the soil. It is important that the base and road surface be sufficiently economical in terms of the cost of materials, but at the same time reliable and durable to withstand constant traffic.
In different regions of Russia, climatic conditions differ significantly, which affects the functioning of roads. In the northern regions, prolonged winters and heavy snowfalls create significant problems in the operation of roads. To cope with these problems, designers use special methods of strengthening the pavement and anti-icing materials.
Today, geoinformation systems (GIS) are used to create a road project, which make it possible to design roads more accurately and efficiently, reduce construction time and costs. Information systems are used to process geographical data and create maps that help determine the optimal route and location of the road, as well as take into account geological and climatic conditions.
The general contractor - LLC «LMA», part of the LMS Group of Companies, is implementing the construction project of the Eastern Exit from Ufa to the Federal Highway M-5 Ural, which includes three large-scale stages: