A dam is a structure of a hydraulic nature, which is a trapezoidal structure in the form of an earth embankment or a concrete structure. The main function of this structure is to create a fence that prevents the uncontrolled movement of water in a certain area. The dam is very similar in structure to a dam, but it has a simplified structure and can withstand less stress.


The type of the future dam is determined based on the purpose for which it is being built. And her purposes may be different:

  • creation of a tank for fish farming in the water area;

  • changing and adjusting the water flow, preventing the destruction of structures due to the strong pressure of water;

  • ensuring the operation of the hydroelectric power station;

  • protection of the coast and nearby buildings from the destructive effects of tsunamis, tides and other natural hazards;

  • for improving the relief of a country pond.

Depending on the specific purpose, the dams can be pressure and non-pressure. Pressurized perform protective and barrier functions. Free-flow ones are used to correct the river bed.

By its location to the reservoir, the soil embankment can be contour, that is, it can be located along the edge of the coast and the dividing one (located on the isthmus of paired ponds). Also, depending on how the dam was formed, it can be natural or artificial.

Natural dams are congestions of logs, twigs and other materials applied by a stream over a period of time. An artificial dam can be made from different materials. For example, from soil, stones or concrete.

Dams can be built for permanent use and for temporary use. The latter are usually created in emergency situations, for example, during a flood or the threat of a storm.


A dam, created from soil or stones and soil, consists of several layers: base, core, body, and rock dressing. There is another way to create a dam, when all of it is made of waterproof soil.

If the project provides that transport will pass along the plane of the dam, it must be made of such a height that the transport bed is not covered with water even if the water level is maximum. The width of the dam, respectively, should be equal to the width of the roadbed.


Soil and earth dams are not always easy to operate. For example, their construction and use will be quite difficult in small reservoirs. In such situations, in order to reduce the size of the dam, its walls are compressed. Such a dam has a trapezoidal upper part and vertical lower walls.

Sooner or later, the dams are eroded, and then they need to be strengthened. And the best way to strengthen is also tongue-and-groove.


A number of mandatory requirements are imposed on the construction of a dam:

  • for laying the dam, only waterproof soils must be used;

  • during backfilling, each layer of material should be well compacted;

  • slopes must be stable and protected from erosion and the influence of external factors;

  • sediment should not lead to the fact that water begins to overflow over the ridge;

  • during settlement, the dam should not be covered with cracks, failures and other damage should not appear.

The dam construction takes place in several stages:

  • The first stage: removal of the top nutrient layer of the soil;

  • The second stage: leveling the construction area, laying the clay soles and creating the dam core;

  • The third stage: installation of a sheet pile wall;

  • The fourth stage: the soil is poured in layers, each layer is carefully compacted;

  • Fifth stage: installation of a pipe that will supply water.

Installation of reinforcement is carried out using metal-profile sheet piles.

The contracting company LMS is engaged in the design and construction of buildings and structures of any complexity. We have a lot of different projects under our belt: Moglice Dam, Yusufeli Dam, Drinking Water Dam (Ankara) and others. To find out the terms of cooperation, call the number indicated on the website, or write to us by mail.